Statement and Arguments
Argument is a fact that is being given by a person to support or oppose a statement.
In this type of questions, a statement concerned with an issue is given, followed by certain arguments in favour or against that statement. You have to identify the logical correct arguments.
Generally, both the arguments are contrary to each other and refer to the positive and negative results of the action as mentioned in the statement issue.
Arguments can be of two types
• Strong Argument An argument is called strong, if it touches the practical and real aspect of the situation as described in the statement. It is backed up by reasons and facts related to the situation.
• Weak Argument An argument is called weak, if it is not directly related to the given statement and it does not address all the points put forward in the given statement. A weak argument is of minor importance or may be related to trivial aspect of the statement.
Important things to Remember
Following points should be taken into consideration while choosing a strong argument.
• A strong argument should give the realistic diagnosis of the situation described in the statement.
• A strong argument should give deep analysis of the topic dealing with the statement.
• A strong argument should relate with the statement and be supported up by facts or established notions.
• An argument, which is based on universal truth is always strong.
Following points should be taken into consideration while choosing a weak argument.
• Weak arguments are ambiguous in nature.
• Weak arguments are too simple and sometime superfluous in nature
• Weak arguments are contrary to established facts.
• Weak arguments are those which contain the words only, definitely, the best until, unless, will be.
• Weak arguments are those which are half explained.
Type of Questions
The following example will give you a idea about the types the questions asked in various competitive exams.
Direction (Example Nos. 1-3) Study the following instructions carefully and then answer the questions that follow.
In making decisions about important questions it is desirable that a candidate should be able to distinguish between 'strong' and 'weak' arguments so far as they relate to the questions.
'Weak' arguments may not be directly related to the questions and may be of minor importance or may be related to the trivial aspect of the question.
Each question given below is followed by two arguments I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a 'strong' argument and which one is 'weak' argument.
(a) If only I is strong
(b) If only II is strong
(c) If either I or II is strong
(d) If neither I nor II is strong
(e) If both I and II are strong
Example 1. Statement Should a cricket team have more than one captain during a match?
(I) No, one needs to make decisions on the spot and there won't be time to resolve conflicting ideas between the captains on the field if such a scenario emerges.
(II) Yes, it is always better to have more brains coming to an understanding before taking a decision.
Solution (a) Every Person can have different opinion. So, to make a decision on the spot it may need more time.
Hence, only argument (I) is strong.
Example 2. Statement Should parents invest as much in educating their daughters as much in educating their daughters as much as they spend on educating their sons?
(I) No, almost all data points to the fact that boys are way more intelligent than girls.
(II) No, though girls may be intelligent, parents have to keep money aside for their marriages.
Solution (d) In the given statement it is not mentioned about intelligence of girls and boys. So, none of the arguments is strong .
Example 3. Statement Should school education be made free in India?
(I) Yes, this is the only way to improve the level of literacy.
(II) No, it should add to the already heavy burden on the exchequer.
Solution (b) Argument I is not strong as it contains 'only' while argument II is strong as such step would require immense funds and will lead to financial drain.
Hence, only argument (I) is strong.
Direction (Example Nos. 4-5) The giving statement is followed by three or four arguments. Decide which of the options is correct about the given arguments.
Example 4. Statement Should the government impose restrictions on access to sensitive information to the journalists to avoid the media hype?
(I) Yes, the media creates hype and publishes distorted information at times.
(II) No, journalists should have an access to all the information as media is the best source to expose the malfunctions in the society.
(III) Yes, at times it leads to harassment of those who are affected and alleged to be involved in the crisis.
(a) All I, II and III are strong
(b) Arguments I and II are strong
(c) Arguments II and III are strong
(d) Only argument II is strong
(e) None of the above
Solution (a) All the three arguments are strong.
Example 5. Statement Should the government introduce a system of obtaining bond from students for working in Indian before sanctioning education loan for higher studies?
(I) No, this is not a workable solution and will obstruct the development of young talent in the country.
(II) Yes, this is the only way to ensure use of the talent of our country for the development of the country and not only an individual..
(III) No, this step will be too harsh.
(IV) Yes, it is banned in many countries also.
(a) Only argument I is strong
(b) Only argument II is strong
(c) Arguments I and II are strong
(d) None is strong
(e) None of the above
Solution (a) As India is democratic country and every person has its right about where he wants to work and singing such bonds does not ensure the correct use of talent of a country. So, argument I is strong but argument II is weak also argument III is a vague and hence is weak argument.
Example 6. This question consists of an information and two statements numbered I and II given below it. You have to decide which of the given statements weaken/s or strengthen/s the given information and decide the appropriate answer.
Information: Examination committee of College X has recommended that the negative marking in the exam should be removed.
(I) The students tend to give answers simply by guessing when there is no negative marking in the exam.
(II) Selecting the best candidates from the population becomes difficult in the absence of negative marking.
(a) Both Statement I and Statement II weaken the information.
(b) Statement I strengthens the information while statement II weakens the information.
(c) Statement I weakens the information while statement II strengthens the information.
(d) Both Statements I and Statements II are neutral statements.
(e) Both Statements I and II Strengthen the information.
Solution (a) Both statements I and II weakens the information.
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