Cause and Effect


Cause & Effect is a major area of logical reasoning topic. Usually in such questions the candidates are asked to determine whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some other event. The idea behind putting these questions is to ascertain the analytical and logical reasoning ability of the aspirants.

An event does not happen automatically but there is a definite cause behind it. The causes are conditions under which these events happen.

The scientific view of cause is one where:

1. It must be a scientifically proven fact that the cause leads to the said effect.

2. The said effect should be a logical consequence of the said cause.

There may be several necessary conditions for the occurrence of an event and that they must all be included in the sufficient condition.

Immediate Cause - An immediate cause means a cause that immediately precedes the effect. Immediate cause are the most proximate in time, to the effect.

Principal Cause - The principal cause is the main and the most important reason behind the effect.

Independent Cause - An independent cause means a cause that does not have any relationship with the given statement.

Rule – Cause is always antecedent. Naturally the cause will occur before the effect. Hence, if two events are given then the effect that is chronologically antecedent to the other one can only be regarded as a possible cause.

The Cause and Effect chapter is very important. Most of candidate ignore this chapter. In this verbal reasoning chapter if you study well than you score more in exam. In exams where most of two - five question has given, the reason behind is to check the logical ability of a candidate.

In this questions candidate need to understand the events whether it is cause or effect. It also needed to understand the events and the cause or the effect is same or the some other event.

In cause and effect statements we can say that the cause is occur first and then effect must occurs after some time the cause. In statements events the cause and effect are related in a direct way or indirect way. Some time both the statements events are wrong that is logically not correct. Some times causes of an events and its effects are occur very fast or soon.

Let see the diagram of an event for your better understanding of cause and effect.



In this type of questions two statements are given. Out of these two statements one may be the cause and other the effect or either these two may be independent causes any effect or independent effects of any cause etc.

The following examples will you a clear cut idea to solve this type of problems.

Example 1:

Statements:

1. Ram's father was ill.

2. Ram brought medicine after consulting the doctor.

Answer with Explanation:

As Ram's father was ill, he brought medicine on the advice of doctor.

Therefore, 1 statement is the cause while 2 statement is the effect.


Example 2:

Statements:

1. The Central Government has recently declared to finish the rebate on farming.

2. The Central Government faces financial loss on account of giving rebate on farming for the last few years.

Answer with Explanation:

As the Central Government faced financial loss on accounts of giving rebate on farming for the last few years, therefore, they declared to finish the rebate of farming.

Hence statement 2 is the cause while statement I is the effect.

LearnFrenzy provides you lots of fully solved Cause & Effect Questions and Answers with explanation.


TIPS on cracking Reasoning Questions on Cause and Effect


Tip #1: Generally statements that happened in the past are the cause while statements in the present are the effect

Statements:

1. The farmers have decided against selling their kharif crops to the Government agencies.

2. The Government has reduced the procurement price of kharif crops starting from last month to the next six months.

Options:

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both statements are independent causes 

D. Both statements are effects of independent causes

E. Both statements are effects of some common cause

Solution:

I happened after II and thus I cannot be a cause. This eliminates options A and C. The events are inter-related, which eliminates D. The answer can be either B or E. Now, it seems that the reduction in procurement price of crops must have instigated the farmers not to sell their produce to Government agencies. So, the correct answer must be B.


Tip #2: Read each statement carefully to understand the nature of the cause-effect relationship

Options:

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both statements are independent causes 

D. Both statements are effects of independent causes

E. Both statements are effects of some common cause

Statements:

I.  The life today is too fast, demanding and full of variety in all aspects which at times leads to stressful situations.

II. Number of suicide cases among teenagers is on increase.

Solution:

Life has become too stressful and this has a major impact on the teenagers, leading to them committing suicide. Thus, the correct answer is A.

Statements:

I.  The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers.

II. The citizens group in the locality have started night vigil in the area.

Solution:

Both the events are effects of the cause that there has been an increase in thefts in the area. So the answer is E.


Tip #3: Do not try to force fit the statements into a cause-effect relationship as they could be the effects of a common cause or two independent causes

Statements:

I.  The employees of the biggest bank in the country have given an indefinite strike call starting from third of the next month.

II. The employees of the Central Government have withdrawn their week long demonstrations.

Options

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both statements are independent causes 

D. Both statements are effects of independent causes

E. Both statements are effects of some common cause

Solution:

The strike must have been called because of some cause. Similarly, The Central Government employees have withdrawn their demonstrations due to some cause. But the causes of these effects seem to be different and independent. So answer is D.


Tip #4: Use general knowledge to link the statements

Statements:

I.  There is increase in water level of all the water tanks supplying drinking water to the city during the last fortnight.

II. Most of the trains were cancelled last week due to water-logging on the tracks.

Options:

A. Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

B. Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

C. Both statements are independent causes 

D. Both statements are effects of independent causes

E. Both statements are effects of some common cause

Solutions:

Both the statements are clearly the result of heavy downpour in the area. So the correct answer is E.