Statement and Conclusions
In a Competitive exam, Reasoning is one of the most important section. If you get good score in Reasoning test then it will help you to achieve good marks in competitive exams. You can achieve a good marks only if you have a depth knowledge of reasoning skills. Basically reasoning is divided into few sections according to logic and type. One of them is Statement and Conclusions.
Statement and Conclusions:
A statement is a group of words arranged to form a meaningful sentence. A conclusion is a judgment or decision reached after consideration about the given statement.
Different types of questions covered in this chapter are as follows.
1. One statement with Two Conclusion Based
2. More than Two Statements and Conclusion Based
A conclusion is an opinion or decision that is formed after a period of thought or research on some facts or sentence stated by someone. A consequent effect has always to be analysed before reaching to the final result or conclusion of a given premise. This requires a very systematic and logical approach.
Statement: Some people say that good thought come in their mind in the morning.
Conclusion: Thoughts come in mind, in the morning only. Now, consider the statement, the word ‘some’ used in the statement does not mean ‘all’. It means some people say not all. Hence, according to some people, good thoughts come in their mind in the morning but thought can come any time in the mind of other people, so, the conclusion that ‘thoughts’ come in mind, in the morning only is not valid. Also, the word used ‘only’ makes the conclusion totally invalid because its restricts that the thought can come only in the morning. To reach to a conclusion think only about the information given in the statement. There is no need to use, assume anything else or add any further or extra information from outside but the established facts cannot be denied like the Sun always rises in the East, a day consists of 24 h etc.
MIND IT !
- If statement is formed with two or more sentences, then there should be no mutual contradiction in sentence.
- Statements and conclusion should not go against established facts and prevailing notious of truth.
- If definitive words like all, always, atleast, only, exactly and so on are used, then such words make the conclusion invalid or ambiguous.
- Always read very carefully and try to find key words as key words play an important role in analysing valid and invalid conclusions.
- If the conclusion is provided with a stated example, then the conclusion is invalid.
Type 1: One Statement with two Conclusions Based.
In this types of questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusion . the candidate is required to find out which of conclusion follows the given statement and select the correct option accordingly. Following examples will give a better understanding about the type of questions asked.
Directions ( 1 – 2): In each of the following questions, a statement is followed by two Conclusions I and II.
(a) if only Conclusion I follows
(b) if only Conclusion II follows
(c) if either I or II follows
(d) if neither I nor II follows
Statement: Parents are prepared to pay any price for an elite education to their children.
I. All parents these days are very well off.
II. Parents have an obsessive passion for perfect development of their children through good schooling.
It may be conclusion from the statement that since parents want a perfect development of their children through good schooling therefore they are prepared to pay any price for a good education but the statement does not give sense of the parents being very well off. Hence, only Conclusion II follows.
Example 2 :
Statement: Interview panel may select a student who is neither possessing the abilities of desired level nor any value and assumption.
I. Inclusion of experts in interview panel does not ensure that the selection will be made properly.
II. Interview procedure of admission has some limitations.
The statement clearly means that inclusion of experts does not ensure proper selection. It also indicates limitation of interview procedure for admission. Here, both the conclusions follow.
Type 2: More Than Two Statements and Conclusion Based
In this type of questions, a statement / statements I / are given followed by some conclusion. Choose the conclusion which follows the given statement.
Directions (1 - 2): Which of the conclusion can be drawn from the statement?
Statement: Many business offices located in buildings having two to eight floors. If a building has more than three floors, it has a lift.
(a) All floors may be reached by lifts
(b) Only floors above the third floor have lifts
(c) Fifth floor has lifts
(d) Second floors do not have lifts
It is clear from the given statement.
Yash Johar is a good director.
Directors are intelligent.
(a) All intelligent are directors
(b) Yash Johar is intelligent
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these
As directions are intelligent and Yash Johar is good director, so Yash Johar is intelligent.
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